On This Day | 6 May 1933: Dorchen Richter killed in Hirschfeld Institute attack

Nazi students parade in front of the Institute for Sexual Research in Berlin prior to pillaging it on May 6, 1933.
Nazi students parade in front of the Institute for Sexual Research in Berlin prior to pillaging it on May 6, 1933. | Image courtesy of United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Photograph #01625

6 May 1933: On this day in Berlin history, Nazi storm troopers raided Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institute for Sexual Science in a deadly attack that claimed the life of a woman whose name the world ought to know.

It is often said that the first trans woman who underwent gender reassignment surgery (or what was once called a ‘sex change’) was Lili Elbe, who was immortalised – not without controversy – by the actor Eddie Redmayne in the 2015 film The Danish Girl.

But we now know of a woman who embarked even earlier upon the journey – an experimental one in those days – which cost Elbe her life.

Dora Richter, known as ‘Dörchen,’ was born in 1891, under another name, in the farmhouse of her impoverished parents. She always identified as female, and would, at the age of six, attempt upon herself a rudimentary version of the surgery she would later undergo.

Dorchen Richter
Dorchen Richter | Image courtesy of magnus-hirschfeld.de

She moved to Berlin, then on the cusp of becoming the LGBTIQ capital of Europe, and would live as female when she wasn’t at work. Here and there, she was arrested for ‘cross-dressing’ – this before the remarkably-progressive Weimar Republic issued its special ‘Transvestite IDs’ – and was eventually released by a judicial order which sent her into the care of Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld at Berlin’s new Institute for Sexual Science.

Though synthetic hormones were not yet available, Richter was able to obtain genital reconstruction surgery, including a vaginoplasty – the creation of a vagina – becoming the first known trans woman to do so. To pay her room and board she worked as a maid at Hirschfeld’s clinic, knitting, sewing, cleaning, humming to herself all the while; a quiet, content woman.

On the 6th of May 1933, a swarm of ‘Storm Troopers’ and fanatical right-wing students burst into the Institute for Sexual Science to raid and destroy its archives, the world’s first repository of LGBTIQ history.

And there, inside her home, did this mob beat gentle Dorchen Richter to death.


This edition of On This Day in Berlin History was contributed by Berlin Tour Guide and BBS Member, Dr Finn Ballard. It is one of four events he has chosen to remember this month. Keep an eye on our blog to see what else he chooses.